Bureau of Statistics (BOS), Government of the Punjab, is the hub of statistical data activity in the province and is responsible for collection, processing and dissemination of statistical data through periodic publications and electronic media. Bureau of Statistics (BOS), Punjab is an attached department of the Planning and Development Department, Government of the Punjab. The functions of BOS, Punjab as standardized by the National Statistical Council are to carry out provincial level data collection, to coordinate and support statistical activities across the province, to liaise with the Federal Statistical system, and to prepare and disseminate provincial indicators by collecting information through institutional sources as well as by conducting new censuses/surveys. BOS, Punjab has its Head Office at Lahore, 9 divisional and 7 district field offices throughout the province. 

Pakistan inherited a decentralized statistical system at the time of independence in 1947, which mainly produced data as a by-product of administrative functions of the government. It consisted of statistical cells varying in strength, technical competence and skills in different departments of the Government with no agency to coordinate their activities. Realizing the shortcomings of the system, Pakistan Government on the recommendations of the Statistical Reorganization Committee, established a Central Statistical Office (CSO) in 1950 as an Attached Department of the Economic Affairs Division to coordinate the statistical activities of the country and to meet its growing data needs.

Because of the increased emphasis on development planning and demand for statistical data, the Planning Commission being the principal user of the statistical data also recommended the expansion of statistical activities of CSO which resulted in the establishment of Provincial Bureaus of Statistics under the recommendations of IBRD Mission in the two Provinces of Pakistan, West Pakistan and East Pakistan.

Consequently, Bureau of Statistics was established in October, 1957 in the Power, Irrigation & Development Department of the Government of West Pakistan to act as a continuing source of statistical data for the provincial departments (by collecting statistics from subject-matter departments or by conducting new censuses and surveys), to improve provincial statistics through evaluation and standardization of collection, estimation and tabulation procedures and to disseminate statistical information through a publication programme. It was made a part of the Planning and Development Department on 31st January, 1959. It was declared an Attached Department of the Planning & Development Department on 1st  July, 1973.